The massive earthworks (seen in an early print in William Stukely: Itinerarium Curiosum, 1724) which from the 15th century onwards stretched along the line of modern Canute Road, partly as a protection against erosion but more especially for defence. The bulwarks were maintained and patrolled as part of the town's defences.

The Green Bulwark was the part of the Bulwarks near Itchen Ferry.


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